Science Communication


  • G. Alkan, B. Xakalashe, B. Yagmurlu, F. Kaussen, B. Friedrich, Conditioning of Red Mud for Subsequent Titanium and Scandium Recovery-A Conceptual Design, World of Metallurgy – Erzmetall, 70, (2), 2017, 5-12
  • B. Yagmurlu, C. Dittrich, B. Friedrich, Precipitation Trends of Scandium in Synthetic Red Mud Solutions with Different Precipitation Agents, Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, 3, 90-98, 2017, DOI: 10.1007/s40831-016-0098-9
  • T. Hertel, B. Blanpain, Y. Pontikes, A Proposal for a 100 % Use of Bauxite Residue Towards Inorganic Polymer Mortar, Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy,  Thematic Section: Bauxite Residue Valorization, 2016, 1 -11.
  • P.J. Joyce, A. Goronovski, A.H. Tkaczyk, A. Björklund, A framework for including enhanced exposure to Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in LCA, The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 22, (7), 2017, 1078-1095, DOI: 10.1007/s11367-016-1218-2
  • W. Zhang , R. Koivula, E. Wiikinkoski, J. Xu, S. Hietala , J. Lehto,  R. Harjula, Efficient and Selective Recovery of Trace Scandium by Inorganic Titanium Phosphate Ion-Exchangers from Leachates of Waste Bauxite Residue, ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering journal, 5, (4), 2017, 3103-3114, DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b02870
  • R.M. Rivera, G. Ounoughene, C.R. Borra, K. Binnemans, T. Van Gerven, Neutralisation of bauxite residue by carbon dioxide prior to acidic leaching for metal recovery, Minerals Engineering, 112, 2017, 92-102, DOI: 10.1016/j.mineng.2017.07.011
  • P. J. Joyce, Lcopt – An interactive tool for creating fully parameterised Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) foreground models, The Journal of Open Source Software, 2, (16), 2017, DOI: 10.21105/joss.00339
  • D. Avdibegovic, M. Regadıo, K. Binnemans, Recovery of scandium(III) from diluted aqueous solutions by a supported ionic liquid phase (SILP), Advances, 7, 2017, 49664–49674, DOI: 10.1039/c7ra07957e
  • W. Zhang, D. Avdibegović, R. Koivula, T. Hatanpää, S. Hietala, M. Regadío, K. Binnemans, R. Harjula,  Titanium alkylphosphate functionalised mesoporous silica for enhanced uptake of rare-earth ions,  Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 2017, 10.1039/c7ta08127h
  • R. M. Rivera, B. Ulenaers, G. Ounoughene, K. Binnemans, T. Van Gerven, Extraction of rare earths from bauxite residue (red mud) by dry digestion followed by water leaching, Minerals Engineering, 119, 2018, 82-92,
  • Vind, J.; Malfliet, A.; Blanpain, B.; Tsakiridis, P.E.; Tkaczyk, A.H.; Vassiliadou, V.; Panias, D. Rare Earth Element Phases in Bauxite Residue, Minerals 2018, 8, 77,
  • D. Avdibegovic, M. Regadıo, K. Binnemans, Efficient separation of rare earths recovered by a supported ionic liquid from bauxite residue leachate, RSC Advances, 8, 2018, 1186-11893, DOI: 10.1039/c7ra13402a


  • C. Dittrich, S. Kaya, F. Diekmann, B. Yagmurlu, Recovery of Rare Earth Elements and Scandium from European Deposits By Solvent Extraction, Proceedings of 21st ALTA Conference, Perth (Australia), 2016 – download
  • B. Yagmurlu, C. Dittrich, B. Friedrich, Recovery of Scandium from Bauxite Residue by Selective Precipitation (Presentation In Lieu Paper), Proceedings of 21st ALTA Conference, Perth (Australia), 2016 – download
  • T. Hertel, R.I. Iacobescu, B. Blanpain, Y. Pontikes, Large-scale Valorization of Bauxite Residue for Inorganic Polymers, Proceedings of the 34th International Conference and Exhibition of ICSOBA, Québec (Canada), 2016 – download
  • T. Hertel, C. R. Borra, B. Blanpain, Y. Pontikes, Inorganic polymer mortars from bauxite residue and possibility to additionally recover aluminium and sodium, Proceedings of the 5th Industrial and Hazardous Waste Management Conference, Chania (Greece), 2016
  • P. Tam Wai Yin, D. Panias, I. Giannopoulou, E. Bourbos, S. Spathariotis, V. Vassiliadou, Recovery of Aluminium from Bauxite Residue: Dissolution and Electrowinning of Aluminium Using Pyrrolidinium Ionic Liquid, 5th International Conference on Industrial and Hazardous Waste Management, Crete (Greece), 2016, 185-186 – download
  • C. Bonomi, C. Cardenia, P. Tam Wai Yin, D. Panias, Review of Technologies in the Recovery of Iron, Aluminium, Titanium and Rare Earth Elements from Bauxite Residue (Red Mud), Proceedings of the III International Academic Symposium on Enhanced Landfill Mining, Lisboa (Portugal), 2016, 259-276, DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.571694 – download
  • T. Hertel, L. Arnout, A. Peys, L. Pandelaers, B. Blanpain, Y. Pontikes, A proposal for the 100% use of the bauxite residue: The process, results on the novel Fe-rich binder and how this can take place within the alumina refinery, Bauxite Residue Valorisation and Best Practices Conference, Leuven (Belgium), 2015, 231-239
  • R.M. Rivera, B. Ulenaers, G. Ounoughene, K. Binnemans, T. Van Gerven, Behaviour of Silica during Metal Recovery from Bauxite Residue by Acidic Leaching, Proceedings of 35th International ICSOBA Conference, Hamburg, Germany, 2017, 547-556
  • C. Cardenia B. Xakalashe ,E. Balomenos , D. Panias and BFriedrich, Reductive roasting process for the recovery of iron oxides from bauxite residue through rotary kiln furnace and magnetic separation, Travaux 46, Proceedings of 35th International ICSOBA Conference, Hamburg, Germany, 2017, 596-601
  • J. Vind, P. Paiste, A. H. Tkaczyk, V. Vassiliadou, D. Panias, The behaviour of scandium in the Bayer process, Proceedings of the 2nd European Rare Earth Resources Conference (ERES 2017), Santorini, Greece, 2017, 190-192
  • J. Vind, V. Vassiliadou, D. Panias, Distribution of trace elements through the Bayer process and its by-products, Proceedings of 35th International ICSOBA Conference, Hamburg, Germany, 2017, 255-268
  • C. Bonomi, P. Davris, E. Balomenos, I. Giannopoulou, D. Panias, Ionometallurgical Leaching Process of Bauxite Residue: a Comparison between Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Ionic Liquids, Travaux 46, Proceedings of 35th International ICSOBA Conference, Hamburg, Germany, 2017, 557-564
  • D. Ariño Montoya, M. Katsiotis, N. Pistofidis, G. Giannakopoulos, D. Papageorgiou, R.I. Iacobescu, Y. Pontikes, Increasing the Fe2O3/Al2O3 ratio in ordinary Portland cement clinker, aiming to incorporate higher contents of bauxite residue, Proceedings of the 5th International Slag Valorisation Symposium, Leuven, Belgium, 2017, 255-258
  • D. Ariño Montoya, M. Katsiotis, G. Giannakopoulos, R.I. Iacobescu, Y. Pontikes, Low-carbon footprint cements incorporating high volumes of bauxite residue, Proceedings of  35th International ICSOBA Conference (Travaux No.46), Hamburg, Germany, 2017, 529-538
  • H. Hodge, P.W.Y. Tam, J. Vaughan, D. Panias, Bauxite Residue Sinter Phase Transformations, 5th International Slag Valorisation Symposium 2017 (5th ISVS 2017), Leuven (Belgium), 2017, 87-90, DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.571733
  • P.W.Y. Tam, B. Xakalashe, B. Friedrich, D. Panias and V. Vassiliadou, Carbothermic Reduction of Bauxite Residue for Iron Recovery and Subsequent Aluminium Recovery from Slag Leaching, Travaux 46, Proceedings of 35th International ICSOBA Conference (ICSOBA 2017), Hamburg (Germany), 2017, 603-614, DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1040789
  • J. Xu, R. Koivula, W. Zhang, E. Wiikinkoski, S. Hietala, R. Harjula, Separation of cobalt, neodymium and dysprosium using amorphous zirconium phosphate, 2017, DOI 10.1016/j.hydromet.2017.11.010 – download


  • P. J. Joyce, A. Goronovski, A. Björklund, A.H. Tkaczyk, Incorporating the radiological effects and environmental impact assessment of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) into the life cycle environmental optimisation of bauxite residue (BR) valorisation, Proceedings of the Bauxite Residue Valorisation and Best Practices Conference (BR 2015), Leuven (Belgium), 2015, 179-184 – download


  • KU Leuven paper in the first issue of the new Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy: K. Binnemans, P.T. Jones, “Rare Earths and the Balance Problem”, Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, 2015, DOI 10.1007/s40831-014-0005-1).
  • First comprehensive review paper on rare-earth recycling. K. Binnemans, P.T. Jones, B. Blanpain, T. Van Gerven, Y. Yang, A. Walton, M. Buchert, Recycling of rare earths: a critical review, Journal of Cleaner Production 51, 2013, 1-22).
  • Review paper on rare-earth metal recovery from industrial residues: K. Binnemans, Y. Pontikes, P.T. Jones, T. Van Gerven, B. Blanpain, “Recovery of rare earths from industrial waste residues: a concise review”, Proceedings of the Third International Slag Valorisation Symposium, 19-20 March 2013, Leuven (Belgium), 191-205.
  • Borra, C., Pontikes, Y., Binnemans, K., Van Gerven, T. (2015). Leaching of rare earths from bauxite residue (red mud). Minerals Engineering
  • Gamaletsos, P., Godelitsas, A., Kuzmin, A., Lagos, M., Xanthos, S., Mertzimekis, T., Goettlicher, J., Steininger, R., Zarkadas, C., Komelkov, A., Pontikes, Y., Angelopoulos, G. (2013). New insights into environmental characterization of bauxite residues (red mud) from Greece. Mineralogical Magazine, 77 (5), 1136-1136.
  • Pontikes, Y., Angelopoulos, G. (2013). Bauxite residue in cement and cementitious applications: Current status and a possible way forward. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 73, 53-63.
  • Bernardo, E., Pontikes, Y., Angelopoulos, G. (2012). Optimisation of low temperature sinter-crystallisation of a waste-derived glass. Advances in Applied Ceramics, 111 (8), 472-479.
  • Pontikes, Y., Rathossi, C., Nikolopoulos, P., Angelopoulos, G., Javaseelan, D., Lee, W. (2009). Effect of firing temperature and atmosphere on sintering of ceramics made from Bayer process bauxite residue. Ceramics international, 35 (1), 401-407.
  • Pontikes, Y., Angelopoulos, G. (2009). Effect of firing atmosphere and soaking time on heavy clay ceramics with addition of Bayer’s process bauxite residue. Advances in applied ceramics, 108 (1), 50-56.
  • Pontikes, Y., Nikolopoulos, P., Angelopoulos, G. (2007). Thermal behaviour of clay mixtures with bauxite residue for the production of heavy-clay ceramics. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 27 (2-3), 1645-1649.


  • Early history of aluminium production (Koen Binnemans, KU Leuven, Belgium) – 
  • Scandium and other REEs (Koen Binnemans, KU Leuven, Belgium) – 
  • Recovery of metals from BR (Dimitrios Panias, NTUA, Greece) – 
  • Inorganic polymers with high Fe content (Yiannis Pontikes, KU Leuven, Belgium) – 
  • Bauxite residue valorisation: successes and failures (Ken Evans, UK) –