Science Communication


  • G. Alkan, B. Xakalashe, B. Yagmurlu, F. Kaussen, B. Friedrich, Conditioning of Red Mud for Subsequent Titanium and Scandium Recovery-A Conceptual Design, World of Metallurgy – Erzmetall, 70, (2), 2017, 5-12
  • B. Yagmurlu, C. Dittrich, B. Friedrich, Precipitation Trends of Scandium in Synthetic Red Mud Solutions with Different Precipitation Agents, Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, 3, 90-98, 2017, DOI: 10.1007/s40831-016-0098-9
  • T. Hertel, B. Blanpain, Y. Pontikes, A Proposal for a 100 % Use of Bauxite Residue Towards Inorganic Polymer Mortar, Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy,  Thematic Section: Bauxite Residue Valorization, 2016, 1 -11.
  • P.J. Joyce, A. Goronovski, A.H. Tkaczyk, A. Björklund, A framework for including enhanced exposure to Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in LCA, The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 2016
  • W. Zhang , R. Koivula, E. Wiikinkoski, J. Xu, S. Hietala , J. Lehto,  R. Harjula, Efficient and Selective Recovery of Trace Scandium by Inorganic Titanium Phosphate Ion-Exchangers from Leachates of Waste Bauxite Residue, ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering journal, 5, (4), 2017, 3103-3114, DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b02870


  • C. Dittrich, S. Kaya, F. Diekmann, B. Yagmurlu, Recovery of Rare Earth Elements and Scandium from European Deposits By Solvent Extraction, Proceedings of 21st ALTA Conference, Perth (Australia), 2016 – download
  • B. Yagmurlu, C. Dittrich, B. Friedrich, Recovery of Scandium from Bauxite Residue by Selective Precipitation (Presentation In Lieu Paper), Proceedings of 21st ALTA Conference, Perth (Australia), 2016 – download
  • T. Hertel, R.I. Iacobescu, B. Blanpain, Y. Pontikes, Large-scale Valorization of Bauxite Residue for Inorganic Polymers, Proceedings of the 34th International Conference and Exhibition of ICSOBA, Québec (Canada), 2016 – download
  • T. Hertel, C. R. Borra, B. Blanpain, Y. Pontikes, Inorganic polymer mortars from bauxite residue and possibility to additionally recover aluminium and sodium, Proceedings of the 5th Industrial and Hazardous Waste Management Conference, Chania (Greece), 2016 – download
  • P. Tam Wai Yin, D. Panias, I. Giannopoulou, E. Bourbos, S. Spathariotis, V. Vassiliadou, Recovery of Aluminium from Bauxite Residue: Dissolution and Electrowinning of Aluminium Using Pyrrolidinium Ionic Liquid, 5th International Conference on Industrial and Hazardous Waste Management, Chania (Greece), 2016, 185-186 – download
  • C. Bonomi, C. Cardenia, P. Tam Wai Yin, D. Panias, Review of Technologies in the Recovery of Iron, Aluminium, Titanium and Rare Earth Elements from Bauxite Residue (Red Mud), Proceedings of the III International Academic Symposium on Enhanced Landfill Mining, Lisboa (Portugal), 2016, 259-276 – download
  • T. Hertel, L. Arnout, A. Peys, L. Pandelaers, B. Blanpain, Y. Pontikes, A proposal for the 100% use of the bauxite residue: The process, results on the novel Fe-rich binder and how this can take place within the alumina refinery, Bauxite Residue Valorisation and Best Practices Conference, Leuven (Belgium), 2015, 231-239 – download
  • J. Joyce, A. Goronovski, A. Björklund, A.H. Tkaczyk, Incorporating the radiological effects and environmental impact assessment of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) into the life cycle environmental optimisation of bauxite residue (BR) valorisation, Proceedings of the Bauxite Residue Valorisation and Best Practices Conference (BR 2015), Leuven (Belgium), 2015, 179-184 – download



  • KU Leuven paper in the first issue of the new Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy: K. Binnemans, P.T. Jones, “Rare Earths and the Balance Problem”, Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, 2015, DOI 10.1007/s40831-014-0005-1).
  • First comprehensive review paper on rare-earth recycling. K. Binnemans, P.T. Jones, B. Blanpain, T. Van Gerven, Y. Yang, A. Walton, M. Buchert, Recycling of rare earths: a critical review, Journal of Cleaner Production 51, 2013, 1-22).
  • Review paper on rare-earth metal recovery from industrial residues: K. Binnemans, Y. Pontikes, P.T. Jones, T. Van Gerven, B. Blanpain, “Recovery of rare earths from industrial waste residues: a concise review”, Proceedings of the Third International Slag Valorisation Symposium, 19-20 March 2013, Leuven (Belgium), 191-205.
  • Borra, C., Pontikes, Y., Binnemans, K., Van Gerven, T. (2015). Leaching of rare earths from bauxite residue (red mud). Minerals Engineering
  • Gamaletsos, P., Godelitsas, A., Kuzmin, A., Lagos, M., Xanthos, S., Mertzimekis, T., Goettlicher, J., Steininger, R., Zarkadas, C., Komelkov, A., Pontikes, Y., Angelopoulos, G. (2013). New insights into environmental characterization of bauxite residues (red mud) from Greece. Mineralogical Magazine, 77 (5), 1136-1136.
  • Pontikes, Y., Angelopoulos, G. (2013). Bauxite residue in cement and cementitious applications: Current status and a possible way forward. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 73, 53-63.
  • Bernardo, E., Pontikes, Y., Angelopoulos, G. (2012). Optimisation of low temperature sinter-crystallisation of a waste-derived glass. Advances in Applied Ceramics, 111 (8), 472-479.
  • Pontikes, Y., Rathossi, C., Nikolopoulos, P., Angelopoulos, G., Javaseelan, D., Lee, W. (2009). Effect of firing temperature and atmosphere on sintering of ceramics made from Bayer process bauxite residue. Ceramics international, 35 (1), 401-407.
  • Pontikes, Y., Angelopoulos, G. (2009). Effect of firing atmosphere and soaking time on heavy clay ceramics with addition of Bayer’s process bauxite residue. Advances in applied ceramics, 108 (1), 50-56.
  • Pontikes, Y., Nikolopoulos, P., Angelopoulos, G. (2007). Thermal behaviour of clay mixtures with bauxite residue for the production of heavy-clay ceramics. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 27 (2-3), 1645-1649.


  • Early history of aluminium production (Koen Binnemans, KU Leuven, Belgium) – 
  • Scandium and other REEs (Koen Binnemans, KU Leuven, Belgium) – 
  • Recovery of metals from BR (Dimitrios Panias, NTUA, Greece) – 
  • Inorganic polymers with high Fe content (Yiannis Pontikes, KU Leuven, Belgium) – 
  • Bauxite residue valorisation: successes and failures (Ken Evans, UK) –